General Application Information

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Work environment conditions may differ due to seasonal or geographical reasons. Like, for example: extremely cold, extremely hot, windy and direct sunlight.

> Application in cold environments (under +5°C) is ill-advised.  Application should be delayed until ambient temperature reaches this. This temperature is the lowest at which cement based mortars set.
It is also il-advised to apply in very hot weather (over +35°C). The ambient temperature should be allowed to fall to suitable level. (Between +5°C / +35°C) At least, effects of high temperature should be decreased by wetting the surface and the ceramic.
> In the case of working under wind and direct sunlight, because planned work durations will decrease, work efficiency will decrease in such conditions. Under mandatory conditions, wet the surface or use Kalekim primer for better results. Moreover, mortar should be applied to the surface with shorter intervals or oiling method should be used.


SURFACE EXAMINATION AND SURFACE PREPARATION
> New surfaces:
Surfaces (like concrete, plaster and grout) must be sound and must have set for 3-4 weeks. Substances preventing adhesion such as release agents should be cleaned and irregular surfaces should be leveled with TamirArt repair mortars. 

> Old surfaces: To achieve a healthy application on old surfaces, soundness of the surfaces must be examined with care. If the surface scratches easily under examination with a hammer, a chisel or a nail, it should be scraped off until sound surface is reached and broken, cracked and weak surfaces must be repaired with repair mortars. Irregularities on horizontal surfaces and unlevel surfaces must be leveled with Mastar 10 leveling mortar.
In addition, all mortar, oil, dirt, etc. must be completely cleaned from the surface before applying as it will negatively affect adhesion.

> Absorbing surfaces: When applying on surfaces with high water absorption (plaster block, plaster panel, aerated concrete, wood, etc.) surface absorbtivity is removed with Kalekim primer to prevent mortar from losing water quickly and causing weak adhesion.

> Surfaces with ceramic lining: If ceramic lining will be applied on existing lining material; check the lining first with a hammer. If unsound, weakly fixed ceramics exist, fix them or remove these and fill the gap with TamirArt repair mortars.

> Painted surfaces: If ceramics will be lined on painted surface, the surface must be examined first. Any loose and swollen places must be scraped off. It is recommended to sandstone or scratch the surface to increase adhesive power of the mortar.

> Wooden-OSB surfaces: Unsecured parts must be fastened, broken and ruptured ones must be replaced. The surface must be primed Kalekim Primer. For long application life, fixing must be done with mesh or fixing must be done after applying TamirArt repair mortar (with mesh). Together with these, showing care for work environment is utmost important.

Three international methods are used in application of fixing mortars. The main purpose here is covering the lining plate back with mortar to ensure no gaps are left.
The trowel type used with these methods is also complementary in this respect.

1- Raking Method
This is the most widely used method in fixing small and medium sized lining materials on thin layer mortars.
After spreading the fixing mortar with normal hand trowel pressing strongly on the surface to be lined, it is raked with a notched trowel of tooth size suiting the tile size holding trowel at a 45° to 60° angle.
After this process the lining material is fixed to the raked surface pressing strongly. In addition, to ensure better spreading and sticking of mortar on the back of the lining material, the lining material is fixed and leveled with the help of a rubber or wooden hammer.

2- Oiling Method
This is a method used in fixing small and medium sized lining materials on thin layer mortars.
The fixing mortar is pasted as a layer on the back of the lining material with normal hand trowel, leaving no gaps at corners and sides and it is stuck on the surface. After that, to ensure better spreading and sticking of mortar on the back of the lining material, the lining material is fixed and leveled with the help of a rubber or wooden hammer.

3- Combined Method
This is a method used with medium bedding mortars. This method must be used for fixing large size lining materials, on floors subject to heavy pedestrian and freight traffic, at places with cold climate and in external façade applications.  
The fixing mortar is both pasted on the surface and raked as in the raking method and pasted on the back of the lining material in a thin layer as in the oiling method. After this, to ensure better spreading and sticking of mortar on the back of the lining material, the lining material is fixed and leveled with the help of a rubber or wooden hammer.
Consumption will increase approximately 30% in applications made with the combined method.


IMPORTANT POINTS IN THE APPLICATION OF ADHESIVES
— The bonding agent should be checked before applying. Do not use products that are expired, agglomerated or hardened.
— The bonding mortar should be prepared according to the preparation instructions on the label.
— During preparation of the bonding agent, the product or the adhesive should be poured slowly into the specifi ed amount of water as indicated on the label and stirred until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. The mixture should be prepared with a low-speed mixer. Do not add any other additive that is not mentioned on the instructions label.
— Please pay attention to the surface preparation criteria.
— Prior to application, a proper bonding class that fits to the location and the application method should be selected.
— It is of utmost importance to apply a combined method and use bonding mortars with high elasticity.
— When using other products than TECHNOFULL Bonding Mortar for applying huge sized or heavy coating materials, make sure to use the combined bonding method.
— In order to obtain a better adhesion surface, the mortar should be first spread over the surface with the flat side of the trowel then combed with the notched side of the selected trowel according to the tile dimensions.
— The tiles should be applied on the combed mortarwithin the incrustation time given on the instruction label, preferably by applying some pressure. The incrustation time may be shortened when applying under suboptimal conditions like high temperature, low humidity or winds. When the incrustation time is elapsed, no further bonding activity should be done on the mortar, the mortar should rather be scraped off the surface.
— Mortar of which the expiry date on the tab has passed or incrusted mortar should be disposed.
— Please avoid direct water contact for at least 24 hours at tiles that have been bonded with cement based products.
— If ceramic is to be applied then present dilatations on the surface should be taken into consideration, during laying of the tiles expansion joints should be provided periodically, a proper profi le or a polyurethane mastic should be applied necessarily at the corners and the expansion joints.
— The humidity on surfaces where bonding mortars on epoxy and polyurethane basis shall be applied has to be less than 5%.
— The epoxy and polyurethane based bonding agents have to be prepared according to the instructions label, a one-to-one mixture must be made without splitting up product components by using a low-speed mixer should be done.
— During usage of epoxy based bonding agents it should be considered that the outside temperature will have an effect on the product, and that high or low temperatures will have an effect on the setting time.

IMPORTANT POINTS IN THE APPLICATION OF GROUTS
— Prior to application the grout should be checked. Do not use products that are expired, agglomerated or hardened.
— The grout should be prepared according to the preparation instructions on the label.
— During preparation of the grout, the powder should be poured slowly into the specifi ed amount of water as indicated on the label and stirred until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. The mixture should be prepared with a low-speed mixer. Do not add any other additive that is not mentioned on the instructions label.
— The grout should be prepared in the same consistence for floor as well as walls.
— Prior to applying the grout, the joint gaps should be cleaned and the joint gaps should be wetted so that the grout mortar will not dry out quickly.
— First wiping at the grouting application can be done after having fi lled the joints and the remnants have become matt on the ceramic surface.
— The wiping of grouting should be done properly. Remnants of dirt on the ceramic tiles shall not enter the joint gaps.
— During wiping use a properly wrung out, dampdry sponge. Do not wipe wet.
— During application, a proper grouting agent that fi ts the joint width and location should be used.
— On expansion joints, at the juncture of the parapet and the ground a polyurethane based grouting agent should be applied.
— The epoxy based grouting agents have to be prepared according to the instructions label, a one-to-one mixture must be made without splitting up product components by using a low-speed mixer should be done.
— After applications with epoxy based grouting agents, the wiping should be done immediately. The wiping should be done with lukewarm water with detergent until the surface is completely cleaned and repeated at least 3-4 times. The water and sponge, used during this application should be changed often.
— Please mind that the joint gaps should be dry during epoxy and polyurethane grouting application.

IMPORTANT POINTS IN THE APPLICATION OF WATERPROOFING MATERIALS
— The size of the area to be waterproofed, the climatic and mechanical conditions which will effect the area, the pressure, exposure duration and chemical properties of the water determine the details and the type of the waterproofi ng system and products to be used. All these criteria should be taken into consideration for the product choice.
— Control the shelf life and the product before the application.
— Attention should be paid to surface preparation criteria.
— Prepare the product according to instructions on the package.
— Corners and joints should be softened and waterproofed. Waterproofi ng tapes should be used for construction joints.
— Before application of cement based waterproofi ng materials, surface must be primed with KALEKİM ASTAR or must be dampened in order to lower surface absorbency.
— Surface should be repaired prior to crystallized waterproofi ng materials application and if there is an active water fl ow, the upstream must be plugged with İZOSTOP Plug Mortar, surface must be roughened and wetted before treatment if necessary.
— Surface must be wetted before application of each layer of crystallized waterproofi ng materials. Surface must be covered with nylon cover until fully cured and dried.
— Because İZOSTOP Plug Mortar is a rapidly setting product, application must be made quick and the water fl ow clearance must not be larger than pawl. — Surface must absolutely be coated with İZOLİNE ASTAR before bitumen based insulation applications.
— During application of polyurethane based waterproofi ng materials, surface must be dry and dehumidifi ed.
— Components of Polyurethane based waterproofi ng materials must not be mixed and should be applied one by one, in layers.
— In the application of acrylic based ELASTİKOR, surface must be primed by diluting ELASTİKOR by adding water at the ratio of ¼, then the material must be applied in 2 layers vertically and 3 layers horizontally without adding water. Use as it is.
— If ceramic tiling is to be done on surface after ELASTİKOR application, sand blasting must be made during last layer application using washed and baked sand of max. 300 microns.
— In order to get good results, waterproofi ng materials must be applied to surface in the recommended number of layers, in product data sheet to ensure total required application thickness.
— At terrace applications, waterproofi ng must start under cap on parapet walls.
— At points where cold joints occur in pools, foundation, curtain wall applications waterproofi ng tapes must be used.
— For dilatation joints, waterproofi ng tape; KALEKİM DİLATASYON BANDI should be used.
— For further information about the application please contact with the Technical Office teknikofis@kalekim.com.tr

IMPORTANT POINTS IN THE APPLICATION OF SURFACE PREPARATION MATERIALS
— Surface preparation material to be used should be selected according to the type and the properties of the surface and the material which will be applied on the prepared surface. The mechanical and climatic conditions should be taken into consideration.
— Primers should be chosen according to the surface porosity, absorbency and smoothness.
— Shelf life and product should be controlled before the application.
— Surface preparation criteria should be taken into consideration. The surface needs to be clean, dry and sound.
— Repair mortar should be chosen according to the mechanical requirements of the area to be repaired.
— Products should be prepared according to the instructions on the package.
— For further information about the products; please contact with the Technical Office (teknikofis@kalekim.com.tr)

IMPORTANT POINTS IN THE APPLICATION OF INDUSTRIAL FLOORING MATERIALS
Surface Preparation
Sound and smooth application surface is very critical for perfect and long life time of the system. Weak areas should be strenghtened. Cracks, voids and imperfections should be repaired by using convenient surface preaparation materials.

Waterproofing
For wet areas, the surface should be waterproofed. Grout application does not provide anreal waterproofing. Waterproofi ng material should be selected according to the properties of the application area and instructions on the product should be followed.

Adhesion of the Tiles
The adhesive choice is very critical alfter the required surface preparation and waterproofi ng application. The mechanical load, traffi c, temperature conditions of the area to be covered with ANTİASİT and the serving purpose builds up the requirements fort he adhesive to be selected.

Grout Application
It is also very critical to select a convenient grouting material according to the usage area requirements as it is for adhesive selection. The ciriteria which determines the type of the grout to be seleced are; the type and concentration of the chemicals which may contact with the surface, motion properties and temperature conditions of the area.


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